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How Nginx implements load balancing configuration

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2023-11-08 16:42:321576browse

How Nginx implements load balancing configuration

How Nginx implements load balancing configuration requires specific code examples

Introduction:
Load balancing is a method of allocating workloads in network servers so that Multiple servers can work together to process requests, improving system availability and performance. In Nginx, we can achieve load balancing through configuration. This article will introduce how to use Nginx for load balancing configuration and provide specific code examples. I hope it will be helpful to readers.

1. Basic principles of Nginx load balancing
Nginx achieves load balancing through HTTP reverse proxy. When the client sends a request, Nginx acts as a proxy server and forwards the request to multiple servers in the background, and then returns the server processing results to the client. Nginx supports a variety of load balancing strategies, including polling, weighted polling, IP hashing, minimum number of connections, etc.

2. Nginx load balancing configuration method

  1. Installing Nginx
    First you need to install Nginx on the server. For specific installation methods, please refer to Nginx official documentation.
  2. Configuring the background server
    Before implementing load balancing, you need to prepare multiple servers in the background to process requests. It can be multiple physical servers or multiple virtual hosts on the same server.
  3. Configure Nginx proxy
    Edit the Nginx configuration file, usually located at /etc/nginx/nginx.conf. Add the following code in the http module:
http {
    upstream backend {
        server backend1.example.com weight=1;
        server backend2.example.com weight=2;
    }

    server {
        listen 80;
        server_name example.com;

        location / {
            proxy_pass http://backend;
            proxy_set_header Host $host;
            proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        }
    }
}

In the above configuration, the upstream keyword defines a group of backend servers, and servers can be added or deleted according to needs. Among them, backend1.example.com and backend2.example.com can be replaced with the actual server domain name or IP address. The weight parameter defines the weight of each server. The higher the weight, the more requests it handles.

  1. Restart Nginx service
    Save the configuration file and restart the Nginx service to make the configuration take effect.
sudo systemctl restart nginx

3. Examples and effects of Nginx load balancing
Assume there are two servers backend1 (192.168.1.100) and backend2 (192.168.1.200), where the weight of backend2 is twice that of backend1 . When a client sends a request, Nginx will distribute it according to the weight. The specific configuration is as follows:

http {
    upstream backend {
        server 192.168.1.100 weight=1;
        server 192.168.1.200 weight=2;
    }

    server {
        listen 80;
        server_name example.com;

        location / {
            proxy_pass http://backend;
            proxy_set_header Host $host;
            proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        }
    }
}

In the above configuration, when 100 requests are sent to Nginx, backend1 will process the weight of 100/3≈34 requests, while backend2 will process the weight of 100/3*2 ≈67 requests, thus achieving load balancing.

Conclusion:
Through the above configuration and sample code, we can see that the load balancing function of Nginx is very powerful and easy to configure. Whether it is a small website or a large application, you can use Nginx to achieve high availability and high performance load balancing. I hope this article will help you understand the configuration method of Nginx load balancing.

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