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Hydrogen production and separator development trends under the global hydrogen energy arms race

2023-04-01 10:56:541187browse

Original title: "Hydrogen "Membrane" Method"

A global hydrogen energy arms race has begun.

With the rapid development and consumption needs of renewable energy sources such as wind and photovoltaic power, and the new energy security needs caused by regional conflicts, hydrogen energy has become an energy carrier that countries around the world are paying close attention to.

In this article, we will directly cut into the specific technical route of the electrolyzer, the key equipment for hydrogen production, and then further focus on one of the most important core components - the separator and its development trends.

Chen Menlei丨Author

Li Tuo丨Editor

1. Four ways to produce hydrogen by electrolysis

The current hydrogen production routes can be roughly divided into three types: industrial by-product hydrogen, fossil fuel hydrogen production, and electrolysis water hydrogen production.

Industrial by-product hydrogen refers to hydrogen as a by-product produced in other industrial production processes. But it is obvious that hydrogen obtained in this way cannot support its development as an energy carrier. Its production capacity is completely uncontrollable, and it cannot truly achieve industrialization.

Hydrogen production from fossil fuels uses coal or natural gas as raw materials to produce hydrogen. The process is mature and the cost is low. It is currently the most important way to produce hydrogen. This method involves carbon emissions, does not meet the goal of carbon neutrality, and cannot be used as a production process to support the hydrogen energy industry.

If supplemented by carbon capture and collection technology, hydrogen produced with zero emissions is blue hydrogen. The problem with this model is that companies need to bear a lot of additional costs and it is not economical enough. Blue hydrogen is not essentially separated from fossil fuels, so there is no fundamental problem. No wonder even Germany, which is quite aggressive on emissions, calls this line "confusing".

Hydrogen production by electrolysis of water accounts for a low proportion of the current hydrogen production structure, but it has received widespread attention from the global energy industry. The raw materials for hydrogen production through electrolysis of water are easily available, and the production process does not produce additional carbon emissions, which is in line with the dual carbon goals; hydrogen energy matches the current background of rapid growth in wind power and photovoltaic installed capacity worldwide, and extremely cheap electricity significantly reduces the energy for hydrogen production. The cost and ability to consume green electricity also meet the needs of the renewable energy industry and are an ideal energy carrier under the trend of energy transformation. Nowadays, the global hydrogen production industry is developing rapidly. In addition to the transportation field, energy storage, industrial production (such as steelmaking) and other industries have also been included in development plans and set corresponding development goals by many countries, which have become the development direction of the energy industry. one.

Data show that as of the end of 2022, direct investment in the global hydrogen energy field will be nearly US$250 billion, and according to the International Hydrogen Energy Council, the total investment will rise to US$500 billion by 2030 [ 1].

In China, the "Medium- and Long-term Plan for the Development of Hydrogen Energy Industry (2021-2035)" jointly issued by the National Energy Administration in March 2022 set the development goals of the industry. From January to February 2023 alone, a total of 8 green hydrogen projects with electrolyzers have been publicly tendered, and the total electrolyzer tender volume reached 763.5MW, an increase of nearly 3 times year-on-year, and has exceeded the domestic electrolyzer shipments in 2022 (nearly 750MW )[2]. Although the tender volume and shipment volume are not completely comparable, the annual shipment volume growth is only a matter of how fast it can be.

Other renewable energy hydrogen production, such as biological hydrogen production, photolysis hydrogen production and other emerging technology routes, are still far away from commercialization due to their low maturity and will not be discussed.

There are currently four main electrolytic hydrogen production technologies, namely: alkaline electrolysis hydrogen production (alkaline water electrolysis, AWE), anion exchange membrane electrolysis (anion exchange membrane electrolysis, AEM), and proton membrane electrolysis hydrogen production. (proton exchange membrane electrolysis, PEM), and solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC) [3][4][5]

Hydrogen production and separator development trends under the global hydrogen energy arms race
  • Alkaline electrolysis hydrogen production: AWE uses alkaline aqueous solution as the electrolyte, mainly using PPS membrane (polyphenylene sulfide) as the separator, under the action of direct current , which electrolyzes water to generate hydrogen and oxygen, is currently the most mature, most commercialized, and most widely used hydrogen production technology. It is also the preferred technical route for the current hydrogen energy industry. As we mentioned earlier, the number of electrolyser tenders in the first two months of 2023 has exceeded the full-year shipments in 2022, and these electrolyzers are all alkaline electrolyzers. The advantages of AWE technology are cost-friendly, simple operation, long equipment service life, mature technology, high production capacity of a single equipment, and high localization rate. Domestic equipment has reached the international leading level. The disadvantages of this route are that the equipment is large and requires a larger site; the absolute energy efficiency is significantly lower than other technical routes; because the reaction process involves an alkaline solution, it is corrosive to a certain extent and requires maintenance of the equipment. The most prominent shortcoming of AWE is that due to the characteristics of some production links, the equipment response speed is slow, it cannot start and stop quickly, the hydrogen production speed is difficult to adjust, and it is not suitable for highly volatile power sources. In other words, it is difficult to cooperate with renewable energy sources such as wind power and photovoltaics.

  • Anion exchange membrane electrolysis hydrogen production: AEM is a preparation process developed to address the defects of AWE. The equipment uses an anion exchange membrane as the separator and pure water or weak alkaline solution as the electrolyte, which can realize the transfer of OH- from the cathode to the anode. This technology has low cost, and the separator has good air tightness, stability and low resistance. It can cooperate with non-precious metal catalysts to achieve high conductivity and high current density, and can alleviate the gas cross-flow problem of AWE, which is possible for AWE. One of the improvement plans. Its shortcomings are low ionic conductivity and poor high-temperature stability. Further research and development of efficient and stable separators and adapted high-performance catalysts are needed. AEM's current technology maturity is the lowest among the four routes and is still in the laboratory research and development stage.

  • Proton membrane electrolysis for hydrogen production: PEM replaces the separator and liquid electrolyte in the alkaline electrolyzer with a polymer proton exchange membrane, which directly decomposes pure water and is considered to be a promising replacement. AWE’s next-generation hydrogen production technology has achieved initial commercialization in some countries. The advantages of PEM are its small size, high efficiency, high purity of hydrogen produced, and fast response speed. It can adapt to the large fluctuations of renewable energy and is very suitable for participating in power grid load regulation. The disadvantage of PEM is that the equipment life is average and the water quality requirements are higher, which makes the supply of raw materials more difficult. The production capacity of a single equipment is far less than the AWE route. At present, the core proton membrane is controlled by foreign companies, and the risk of low localization rate cannot be ignored. The most prominent problem of PEM is that it is very expensive. The catalyst uses a large amount of precious metals such as platinum. The equipment cost can even be 3 to 5 times that of the AWE route. It is not economical enough. The excessive cost has even led some countries to turn to the AWE route in order to achieve large-scale production as soon as possible. .

  • Solid oxide electrolysis of water to produce hydrogen: SOEC uses solid oxide as the electrolyte. In a high temperature environment of 700~1000 degrees Celsius, water vapor mixed with a small amount of hydrogen enters from the cathode. The cathode undergoes an electrolysis reaction and decomposes into H2 and O2-. O2- passes through the electrolyte layer and reaches the anode, where it loses electrons to generate O2. . SOEC is significantly different from the previous hydrogen production technologies in terms of electrolysis device design and working conditions. The advantage is that the energy efficiency is significantly higher than AWE and PEM, reaching more than 90%. However, the technology maturity is low and it does not yet have commercialization conditions. It is currently in its preliminary stages. demonstration stage.

In terms of market, my country is the world’s largest hydrogen producer and the largest manufacturer of electrolyzer equipment. Of course, hydrogen at this stage does not exist as an energy carrier, but as an industrial raw material, widely used in oil refining, ammonia synthesis, methanol synthesis, steelmaking, etc.

Statistics from the International Energy Agency show that global hydrogen production capacity in 2021 will be approximately 94 million tons; domestic production will be approximately 33 million tons [6][7]. However, the global hydrogen supply is mainly produced by reforming fossil fuels, which produces a large amount of carbon emissions and is not clean. This means that combined with the dual-carbon goal, even if hydrogen is not regarded as a fuel, there are alternative opportunities and commercialization scenarios for hydrogen production by electrolysis of water, and there is no need to limit the perspective to the hydrogen energy industry.

According to the "China Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cell Industry Annual Blue Book (2022)", the global electrolyzer market shipments will reach 1GW in 2022, and China's total electrolyzer shipments will exceed 800MW, a year-on-year increase of more than 129%. The global share exceeds 80%; alkaline electrolyzers occupy an absolute dominant position, with annual shipments of 776MW; the top three hydrogen production equipment manufacturers in terms of shipments are: Cockerill Mediacom, CSSC Perry Hydrogen Energy, Longi Hydrogen Energy. Among them, Longi Hydrogen Energy rose from the top five to the third place in just one year [8][9].

Hydrogen production and separator development trends under the global hydrogen energy arms race

2. Alkaline electrolyzer: mature charm

AWE electrolyzer can gain market share Favor is not difficult to understand. Mature technology and low cost have always been the favorite characteristics of industrial production.

Hydrogen production and separator development trends under the global hydrogen energy arms race
Image source: Research progress on advanced hydrogen production principles and technologies in the context of carbon neutrality [5]

As a technology with a history of more than a century, the AWE route is now very mature and has a high level of localization. Although there is still room for cost reduction through optimizing equipment, the effect will not be particularly outstanding. This is related to the equipment cost. The high PEM route is very different. The current core cost reduction logic of alkaline electrolyzers has entered the stage of pursuing scale effects to dilute costs. A typical manifestation of this is that the equipment is getting larger and larger, and a single tank production capacity of 1000Nm³/h has basically become standard. In December 2022, CSSC Perry launched the "Big Mac" [10] with a single hydrogen production capacity of 2000Nm³/h.

In addition to the scale effect, there is also room for improvement in AWE’s preparation technology.

The first is the upgrade of the core component - the diaphragm. Currently, equipment manufacturers are switching from traditional PPS membranes to composite separators with better overall performance.

Some composite diaphragms focus on improving the energy utilization of AWE. BloombergNEF data shows that some composite membranes can increase energy efficiency by 4%, and the cost of domestic membranes may be only about 30% of that in Europe, which can effectively continue the price advantage of domestic equipment [11].

Other composite diaphragms try to solve the problem of gas cross-flow in alkaline electrolyzers. During the hydrogen production process of AWE, pressure imbalance will occur on both sides of the diaphragm due to gas production. If not properly controlled, hydrogen will penetrate the diaphragm and mix with oxygen, which is extremely dangerous. Therefore, pressure management must be carried out during the hydrogen production process. In fact, it is this demand that makes it difficult for alkaline electrolyzers to adapt to fluctuating power supplies. The idea of ​​​​some separator manufacturers is to physically solve hydrogen leakage by producing separators with excellent gas barrier properties, thereby giving electrolyzers the ability to adapt to fluctuating energy sources.

Essentially, the anion exchange membrane electrolyzer follows the AWE route with an upgraded separator.

High-temperature hydrogen production through alkaline electrolysis of water is also a possible upgrade direction. To summarize briefly, operating under high temperature and high pressure conditions can effectively improve the operating efficiency of the electrolyzer. However, high-temperature and high-concentration electrolytes can cause alkali corrosion problems and reduce the service life of equipment. Therefore, higher temperatures require more corrosion-resistant materials; high pressure makes system management more difficult. High temperature is still in the laboratory stage.

Research on hydrogen production from seawater is also not uncommon. Coastal and offshore wind power and solar resources are relatively abundant, and water resources are almost unlimited. They are ideal places for on-site hydrogen production from renewable energy. The current problem is that the composition of seawater is very complex, and ions in it will undergo various chemical reactions with alkaline solutions, seriously affecting the operation of hydrogen production equipment. Although the onshore model of purifying seawater and producing hydrogen does not necessarily incur too much additional cost, the offshore situation is completely different. The construction cost of building a platform at sea is very high, and installing additional desalination equipment will cause the cost to soar, further reducing the already poor economics. Developing equipment that can directly electrolyze seawater is also the direction of researchers and companies.

Another idea is to optimize the control system, establish a model that can adapt to the fluctuation of power supply, and upgrade the operation strategy without upgrading the hydrogen production equipment to avoid repeated starts and stops and achieve stable operation.

What is simpler and more direct is to connect renewable energy to energy storage equipment, directly smooth the fluctuations at the power generation end, and then connect it to the hydrogen production line. The advantage is that it can quickly implement the project, but the disadvantage is that it will naturally increase the cost of hydrogen production.

It is conceivable that if the above-mentioned and unmentioned technological upgrades can be implemented, AWE hydrogen production will have a large amount of extremely cheap energy, improve economics, and solidify the promotion of the hydrogen energy industry. Base. Furthermore, my country’s current autonomy and technology accumulation in the alkaline electrolyzer route are significantly better than the PEM route. Rather than forcibly competing with overseas companies on technical lines that they are not very good at, it is better to delve deeper into strong areas, which is also a very common competitive idea.

3. Proton exchange membrane: localization opportunity

PEM The core component of hydrogen production, the situation of proton exchange membrane is more complicated.

The mainstream proton exchange membrane is an end product of organic fluorine chemicals. It has a specific proton transfer function. In addition to hydrogen production, it is also a key component of hydrogen fuel cells and the equally hot liquid flow batteries.

Compared with AWE hydrogen production, there is a certain gap between my country's PEM hydrogen production route and foreign advanced levels. The technical barriers to proton membranes are relatively high. At present, my country is relatively dependent on imports, and the localization rate is low, so there is a certain risk of getting stuck. Of course, the corresponding localization opportunities are also more abundant. Coupled with the broader application space, policy-driven demand growth, and higher profit margins as a high-tech product, it can be considered that proton membrane will be a market expected to grow rapidly.

This article focuses on hydrogen production equipment, so without additional explanation below, it is assumed to refer specifically to the proton exchange membrane for electrolyzers

From the basic principle, the electrochemical process in the PEM electrolyzer is : Pure water enters the catalytic layer through the water inlet channel. Under the joint action of the DC power supply and the catalyst, the anode produces oxygen and hydrogen ions. The hydrogen ions pass through the proton exchange membrane and combine with electrons at the cathode to produce hydrogen. The structure of the PEM electrolyzer is shown in the figure below, which is mainly composed of bipolar plates, porous diffusion layers, proton exchange membranes, and cathode and anode catalytic layers [5].

Hydrogen production and separator development trends under the global hydrogen energy arms race
Image source: Research progress on advanced hydrogen production principles and technologies in the context of carbon neutrality [5]

The fuel cell is the reverse reaction device of the PEM electrolyzer. The electrolyzer electrolyzes water into hydrogen and oxygen. The fuel cell uses hydrogen and oxygen as the reaction materials of the anode and cathode, ultimately producing water and electricity.

Hydrogen production and separator development trends under the global hydrogen energy arms race
Image source: Energy Industry [12]

Although electrolyzers and fuel cells both work based on proton membranes and have similar structures, their product needs are different, their performance indicators are inconsistent, and The material systems of the final products are also very different and cannot be generalized.

The overall structure of the electrolyzer is relatively simple, but the working conditions are more severe, requiring the material to have a higher service life and durability, making the membrane used in the electrolyzer thicker than that used in the battery; fuel cells are developed from car manufacturing Based on demand, proton membranes require additional modification treatments to enhance them. For example, Gore uses expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) as a reinforcing material to produce ultra-thin proton membranes for use in fuel cell vehicles of Toyota, Hyundai and Honda. [13].

This shows that when evaluating products, it is also necessary to consider specific downstream application scenarios. Rather than simply assuming that a company produces proton membranes, it has the ability to cover multiple fields. There are still certain issues in this. the difference.

It should be noted that the equipment cost of the PEM electrolyzer is the main reason for the high cost. The proton exchange membrane is also the core part of the electrolyzer, but its proportion in the total cost of hydrogen production is not high (about 2.3 %), localization does not have a prominent effect on cost reduction. The main significance of localization is not only business opportunities, but also to avoid being suppressed by foreign countries in key links.

Hydrogen production and separator development trends under the global hydrogen energy arms race
Picture source: IRENA [14]

Proton exchange membrane products are mainly distinguished by fluorine content. It can be divided into four categories: perfluorinated proton exchange membrane, partially fluorinated polymer proton exchange membrane, non-fluorinated polymer proton exchange membrane, and composite proton exchange membrane. Among them, perfluorosulfonic acid proton exchange membrane is the most mature, has the best comprehensive performance, and is the most widely used commercially. PEM electrolyzers use perfluorosulfonic acid membranes.

Hydrogen production and separator development trends under the global hydrogen energy arms race

From the perspective of the industrial chain, the upstream of the proton exchange membrane is the monomer material of organic fluorine chemicals. The most mainstream product direct material is perfluorosulfonic acid. Resin materials extend upward to monomer materials such as tetrafluoroethylene and perfluoroalkyl vinyl ether in organic fluorine chemicals, and can be traced back to raw materials such as fluorite, hydrogen fluoride, and refrigerants [15] .

Hydrogen production and separator development trends under the global hydrogen energy arms race

Currently, the production process of proton exchange membrane can be divided into two categories: melt film forming method (melt extrusion method) and solution film forming method. , among which the solution film-forming method is currently a widely used commercial process. The solution film-forming method can be further subdivided into solution casting method, solution casting method, and sol-gel method, with solution casting method being the mainstream [15].

Hydrogen production and separator development trends under the global hydrogen energy arms race

Due to technological deficiencies, the current localization rate of proton exchange membranes in various fields is not high and is in the catching-up stage.

Global proton exchange membrane production capacity is basically monopolized by foreign countries. For a long time, the production of perfluorinated proton exchange membranes has been mainly concentrated in developed countries such as the United States and Japan. Major companies include DuPont, Dow, and Gore of the United States, and Asahi Glass and Asahi Kasei of Japan. In the field of proton membranes, DuPont's products are the most competitive and have the strongest technology accumulation; fuel cell membrane electrodes are dominated by Gore. Domestically, Dongyue Group is the industry leader, and Kerun New Materials also has mass-produced proton membrane products.

Proton membranes are more difficult to prepare from raw materials. Perfluorosulfonic acid resin is a substance with a very complex preparation process. It can be called the technological pinnacle of the fluorine chemical industry chain. Its production process involves a large number of harsh reaction conditions, complicated processes, and explosive and dangerous goods. How to produce membrane materials with chemical stability, mechanical strength, electrochemical performance and other indicators that meet downstream needs has already set high standards for enterprises. The proton membrane film forming process is even more difficult and has strict requirements on equipment, workshops, and production line management. In addition, due to the first-mover advantage, companies in Japan, the United States and other countries have mastered a large number of key patents in the field of proton membranes. How to build their own professional system and bypass professional barriers is also a problem faced by domestic companies.

In order to catch up with the international advanced level, the accumulation of talents, technology and sufficient capital expenditure in local industries are essential. At the same time, leading foreign companies will also put great pressure on domestic companies. The difficulties encountered by my country's hydrogen production equipment in proton exchange membranes are very similar to those in the photoresist industry. They stem from my country's latecomer disadvantage in the field of specialty chemicals. It will take time to make up for this disadvantage.

From the perspective of market share, in terms of the localization rate of fuel cell proton exchange membranes, GGII data shows that the demand for domestic membrane electrode proton exchange membranes in 2020 is 44,000m2, of which domestic proton exchange membranes The market share of exchange membranes is 7.5%, rising to 11.61% by 2021 [17].

Hydrogen production and separator development trends under the global hydrogen energy arms race

The PEM water electrolysis hydrogen production proton exchange membrane market is small, and its share is occupied by Chemours (formerly DuPont USA) Nafion™ series membranes. Market share in 2021 As high as 76%, the market share of domestic proton exchange membranes is 21.45%. GGII research shows that Dongyue Future Hydrogen Energy, a subsidiary of Dongyue Group, has completed preliminary application verification for some customers and will begin localized substitution in 2021, with a market share of approximately 15% [17].

Hydrogen production and separator development trends under the global hydrogen energy arms race

In 2021, the localization rate of proton exchange membranes for flow batteries in the Chinese market is about 23.15%. The main manufacturers are Kerun New Materials and Dong Yue Future Hydrogen Energy and other domestic companies’ flow battery proton exchange membranes are in the sample verification stage. The domestic market is still dominated by Chemours' perfluorosulfonic acid resin membrane, with a market share of 75% [17].

Hydrogen production and separator development trends under the global hydrogen energy arms race

Finally, although we mentioned at the beginning of this section that proton exchange membranes have strong growth potential, this is only a description of its growth potential. The absolute market size is not very large yet, and future growth faces more uncertainties.

Theoretically, hydrogen energy vehicles should be the industry that uses the largest amount of proton exchange membranes. According to CITIC Securities estimates, when the number of fuel cell vehicles reaches 1 million in 2030, the corresponding proton exchange membrane market space will reach 13.2 billion yuan [15]. However, we still have to consider that the growth prospects of fuel cell vehicles are not very clear. At least currently, they are far less competitive than lithium battery electric vehicles. They are only used in a small amount in the field of commercial vehicles, and these applications are mostly for demonstration purposes. It must have decisive advantages for electric commercial vehicles.

The proton membrane market corresponding to PEM electrolyzers is relatively limited. The agency predicts that the size of the electrolyzer market by 2025 will be RMB 35 billion. According to this calculation, if the cost structure does not change significantly and the PEM route completely occupies the market, the corresponding proton membrane market will be approximately RMB 1.75 billion. In fact, The situation can only be much smaller than this number [18]. In addition, industrial production has never been very interested in the advancement of technology. If PEM is never able to compete with the AWE route at the cost level, it will not be the optimal route for the entire hydrogen production industry, and the market share will be smaller. Small.

All-vanadium redox flow battery is one of the more popular flow battery technology routes. It mainly attracts market attention as a potential long-term energy storage technology. The "14th Five-Year Plan" released in March 2022 The “Implementation Plan for the Development of New Energy Storage” includes 100-megawatt flow battery technology as one of the key directions in researching new energy storage core technology and equipment [19]. Proton exchange membrane, or ion exchange membrane (the specific name depends on the application field), is used in electric stacks to block vanadium ions of different valences and allow hydrogen ions to pass through. As of the end of October 2022, the total scale of all-vanadium redox flow battery projects including registration, construction start, under construction, bid winning, bidding, etc. has reached 1.3GW / 5.4GWh. Among them, the total number of projects that have been started, won bids and are under construction exceeds 2.0GWh, and are expected to be gradually implemented in 2023 [20].

However, there are currently many energy storage routes, and there is no definite winner. Moreover, the technology choices corresponding to different energy storage scenarios may also be different. There is still great uncertainty in the commercialization of all-vanadium redox flow batteries. sex.

In addition to the above application scenarios, proton exchange membranes also have a less well-known downstream, the chlor-alkali industry. More strictly speaking, this kind of organic fluoride membrane should be widely used as an ionic membrane in the chlor-alkali industry. The ion membrane method is currently the most mainstream production process in the chlor-alkali industry, including in my country. It has the advantages of low power consumption, high concentration of liquid alkali, high degree of production automation, and less environmental pollution. The utilization rate is close to 100% [ 15]. Perfluorinated ion exchange membrane is the core material, which is composed of perfluorosulfonic acid membrane, perfluorocarboxylic acid membrane and polytetrafluoroethylene reinforced mesh. It also relies on imports. Since chlor-alkali is a very typical high-energy-consuming industry, it is extremely difficult to expand production. It is a standard stock market and the demand is relatively fixed. The agency estimates that even if domestic substitution is fully realized, the corresponding scale will only be about 450 million. It has not received widespread attention and will not Within reason [21].

4. Routine cooling down

At the end of the article, we still have to pour out a basin of cold water on a routine basis.

Hydrogen energy is certainly good, but it is also very immature. Although there are a few applications in the current energy industry, hydrogen as an industry falls far short of the vision it portrays.

The constraints of hydrogen energy’s immaturity are not limited to the hydrogen production process. Other problems such as storage and transportation, refueling, specific commercialization, and construction of supporting facilities all have problems of one kind or another.

But what we see is that some companies, investment institutions, and even the media often devote a lot of attention and capital expenditures to terminal fuel cells, but intentionally or unintentionally ignore the systemic development of the industry. This is actually not difficult to understand. After all, compared to other links, fuel cells are the simplest and there are traces to follow - there are probably not a few people who are crossing the river by touching lithium batteries and trying to "invest in the next CATL era".

However, it is difficult to imagine how hydrogen energy can create a CATL-level leader out of thin air without a nationwide power grid and mature battery main material preparation technology. In the absence of a mature industrial chain and a systematic industrial structure, it is unrealistic to try to conquer a certain link. Moreover, readers must have their own judgment on how many of the players currently entering the hydrogen energy industry are entering the low-technical threshold of the hydrogen energy industry just to follow trends, speculate on hot topics, persuade investors, or even to cheat on subsidies.

Furthermore, hydrogen energy is only one of many promising routes. Although it has a series of advantages such as cleanliness and high calorific value, the current global energy market transformation wave coincides with the eight immortals crossing the sea. There is great uncertainty in the future mainstream technology route. There is no reason to believe that hydrogen energy will definitely win and become the future market. the dominant power. No matter how big the pie painting is, at least at this stage it is just a painting.

Hydrogen energy certainly has its positive significance, but industrial development is unlikely to be completed in one go. It is hoped that industry participants and promoters can view the objective laws of development more rationally. Eagerness for quick success and short-sightedness are often synonymous, and the most likely outcome of a hot-headed approach is the market's old tricks.


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##This article comes from the WeChat public account: Guoke Hard Technology (ID: guokr233), author: Chen Menlei

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