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Patterns and anti-patterns of Golang function error handling

王林
王林Original
2024-04-24 13:30:01727browse

Go function error handling modes include: using errors.New() to create errors, wrapping underlying errors, and returning nil to indicate no errors. Anti-patterns include using magic numbers or strings to represent errors, handling errors implicitly, ignoring errors, and delayed exit patterns. Best practice: Use errors.New() to create and return errors. Anti-pattern example: Ignore errors returned by os.Open(). Following best practices and avoiding anti-patterns results in clear, maintainable, and easy-to-debug code.

Patterns and anti-patterns of Golang function error handling

Patterns and anti-patterns of Go function error handling

When handling errors in Go, there are many ways to do it. However, not all models are ideal. This article will explore best practices and anti-patterns for function error handling in Go, and provide real-life examples to demonstrate them.

Best Practice:

  • ##Use errors.New() Create errors: This is a create The most common method for new errors, which returns an error value with a concise description.
  • Wrap errors with underlying errors: If a function receives an error, it can be wrapped in a new error to provide more context about the source of the error.
  • Return nil to indicate no error: If the function encountered no error, it should return nil.
  • Don't use global error variables: Using global error variables can create race conditions and make code difficult to debug.
  • Handling Errors: All errors should be handled within the function rather than ignored. Ideally, an error should be returned indicating that the function failed.

Anti-pattern:

  • Use magic numbers or fixed strings to represent errors: This can make the code difficult to maintain and extensions.
  • Implicit handling of errors: Do not use if err != nil { ... } to check for errors and then return directly, as this will make error handling difficult track.
  • Ignore Errors: Always handle errors, even if you think they are unlikely to occur.
  • Use delayed exit mode: Using the if err != nil { return err } pattern at the end of a function will make the code difficult to read and maintain.

Real case:

Best practice: The following function uses errors.New() to create an A new error, and returns it to indicate to the caller that the file open failed:

func OpenFile(path string) (*os.File, error) {
    f, err := os.Open(path)
    if err != nil {
        return nil, errors.New("failed to open file: " + err.Error())
    }
    return f, nil
}

Anti-pattern: The following function does not handle the error returned by os.Open() , which can cause your program to crash:

func OpenFile(path string) *os.File {
    f, _ := os.Open(path)
    return f
}

By following the best practices outlined in this article and avoiding anti-patterns, you can write code that is clear, maintainable, and easy to debug.

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