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    Java图文详解之实现图书管理系统

    长期闲置长期闲置2022-06-07 20:49:30转载525
    本篇文章给大家带来了关于java的相关知识,其中主要介绍了关于怎么实现图书管理系统的相关问题,包括了查找图书、添加图书、删除图书、借阅图书等等内容,下面一起来看一下,希望对大家有帮助。

    推荐学习:《java视频教程

    一. 功能介绍

    1.1 使用介绍

    1.输入姓名

    2.选择身份

    3.根据身份打印不同功能菜单

    1.2 基本框架


    二、具体思路

    book(包)

    operation(功能包)

    user(使用者包)


    三、代码实现

    book(包)

    Book(书类)

    package book;/**
     * User: gu'jiu
     * Date: 2022-05-18
     * Time: 14:45
     * Description:书
     */public class Book {
        private String name;//书名
        private String author;//作者
        private double price;//价格
        private String type;//类型
        private boolean state;//书的状态(已借出or未借出)
        
    	//对书进行初始化,书的状态不用进行初始化(默认未借出)
        public Book(String name, String author, double price, String type) {
            this.name = name;
            this.author = author;
            this.price = price;
            this.type = type;
            this.state = state;
        }
    
        public String getName() {
            return name;
        }
    
        public void setName(String name) {
            this.name = name;
        }
    
        public String getAuthor() {
            return author;
        }
    
        public void setAuthor(String author) {
            this.author = author;
        }
    
        public double getPrice() {
            return price;
        }
    
        public void setPrice(double price) {
            this.price = price;
        }
    
        public String getType() {
            return type;
        }
    
        public void setType(String type) {
            this.type = type;
        }
    
        public boolean isState() {
            return state;
        }
    
        public void setState(boolean state) {
            this.state = state;
        }
    
        @Override
        public String toString() {
            return "[" +
                    "name='" + name + '\'' +
                    ", author='" + author + '\'' +
                    ", price=" + price +
                    ", type='" + type + '\'' +
                    ", " + (state == true ? "已借出" : "未借出") +
                    ']';
        }}

    BookList(书架类)

    package book;/**
     * User: gu'jiu
     * Date: 2022-05-18
     * Time: 14:52
     * Description:书架
     */public class BookList {
        private Book[] books = new Book[10];
        private int usedSize;
    
        public BookList() {
            books[0] = new Book("三国演义","罗贯中",19.9,"小说");
            books[1] = new Book("西游记","吴承恩",29.9,"小说");
            books[2] = new Book("红楼梦","曹雪芹",26.9,"小说");
            usedSize = 3;
        }
    
        public Book getBooks(int pos) {//输入下标获取该下标的这本书
            return books[pos];
        }
    
        public void setBooks(int pos, Book book) {//输入下标和一本书,在该下标放入一本书
            this.books[pos] = book;
        }
    
        public int getUsedSize() {
            return usedSize;
        }
    
        public void setUsedSize(int usedSize) {
            this.usedSize = usedSize;
        }}

    operation(功能包)

    IOperation(功能接口)

    package operation;import book.BookList;/**
     * User: gu'jiu
     * Date: 2022-05-18
     * Time: 15:07
     * Description:接口
     */public interface IOperation {
        void work(BookList bookList);}

    FindOperation(查找图书)

    package operation;import book.Book;import book.BookList;import java.util.Scanner;/**
     * User: gu'jiu
     * Date: 2022-05-18
     * Time: 15:09
     * Description:查找书籍信息
     */public class FindOperation implements IOperation{
        @Override
        public void work(BookList bookList) {
            System.out.println();
            System.out.println("查找图书");
            System.out.println("------------------------");
            Scanner scanner = new Scanner(System.in);
            System.out.print("请输入书的名称:");
            String name = scanner.nextLine();
    
            //获取书架中图书数量
            int size = bookList.getUsedSize();
            //根据名字查找
            for (int i = 0; i < size; i++) {
                Book book = bookList.getBooks(i);
                if (book.getName().equals(name)) {
                    System.out.println(book);
                    return;
                }
            }
            System.out.println("未找到该书。");
        }}

    AddOperation(添加图书)

    package operation;import book.Book;import book.BookList;import java.util.Scanner;/**
     * User: gu'jiu
     * Date: 2022-05-18
     * Time: 15:04
     * Description:新增书籍
     */public class AddOperation implements IOperation{
        @Override
        public void work(BookList bookList) {
            System.out.println();
            System.out.println("添加图书");
            System.out.println("------------------------");
            Scanner scanner = new Scanner(System.in);
            System.out.print("请输入书名:");
            String name = scanner.nextLine();
            System.out.print("请输入作者:");
            String author = scanner.nextLine();
            System.out.print("请输入书的类型:");
            String type = scanner.nextLine();
            System.out.print("请输入价格:");
            double price = scanner.nextDouble();
    
            Book book = new Book(name, author, price, type);
            bookList.setBooks(bookList.getUsedSize(), book);//将书放入书架
    
            bookList.setUsedSize(bookList.getUsedSize()+1);//书籍数量+1
        }}

    DelOperation(删除图书)

    package operation;import book.Book;import book.BookList;import java.util.Scanner;/**
     * User: gu'jiu
     * Date: 2022-05-18
     * Time: 15:05
     * Description:删除书籍
     */public class DelOperation implements IOperation{
        @Override
        public void work(BookList bookList) {
            System.out.println();
            System.out.println("删除图书");
            System.out.println("------------------------");
            Scanner scanner = new Scanner(System.in);
            System.out.print("请输入要删除的书名:");
            String name = scanner.nextLine();
    
            //获取书架中现在有几本书
            int size = bookList.getUsedSize();
            int i = 0;
            //根据书名找到这个本书的下标
            for (i = 0; i < size; i++) {
                Book book = bookList.getBooks(i);
                if (book.getName().equals(name)) {
                    break;
                }
            }
            if (i == size) {
                System.out.println("删除失败,未找到该书。");
                return;
            }
            //通过前移将书删除
            for (i = 0; i < size - 1; i++) {
                bookList.setBooks(i,bookList.getBooks(i + 1));
            }
            bookList.setUsedSize(bookList.getUsedSize()-1);//书架中图书数量-1
            System.out.println("删除成功。");
        }}

    BorrowOperation(借阅图书)

    package operation;import book.Book;import book.BookList;import java.util.Scanner;/**
     * User: gu'jiu
     * Date: 2022-05-18
     * Time: 15:05
     * Description:借阅书籍
     */public class BorrowOperation implements IOperation{
        @Override
        public void work(BookList bookList) {
            System.out.println();
            System.out.println("借阅图书");
            System.out.println("------------------------");
            Scanner scanner = new Scanner(System.in);
            System.out.print("请输入要借书的名称:");
            String name = scanner.nextLine();
    
            //获取书架中现在有几本书
            int size = bookList.getUsedSize();
            for (int i = 0; i < size; i++) {
                Book book = bookList.getBooks(i);
                //判断在书架中是否有这本书
                if (book.getName().equals(name)) {
                    //判断书是否被借走
                    if (!book.isState()) {
                        System.out.println("借阅成功!");
                        book.setState(true);//将书的状态改为已借出
                        return;
                    } else {
                        System.out.println("借阅失败,该书已被别人借走。");
                        return;
                    }
                }
            }
            System.out.println("借阅失败,未找到该书。");
        }}

    ReturnOperation(归还图书)

    package operation;import book.Book;import book.BookList;import java.util.Scanner;/**
     * User: gu'jiu
     * Date: 2022-05-18
     * Time: 15:10
     * Description:归还书籍
     */public class ReturnOperation implements IOperation{
        @Override
        public void work(BookList bookList) {
            System.out.println();
            System.out.println("归还图书");
            System.out.println("------------------------");
            Scanner scanner = new Scanner(System.in);
            System.out.print("请输入要还书的名称:");
            String name = scanner.nextLine();
    
            //获取书架中现在有几本书
            int size = bookList.getUsedSize();
            for (int i = 0; i < size; i++) {
                Book book = bookList.getBooks(i);
                //判断在书架中是否有这本书
                if (book.getName().equals(name)) {
                    //判断书是否已被借走
                    if (book.isState()) {
                        System.out.println("归还成功!");
                        book.setState(false);//将书的状态改为未借出
                        return;
                    } else {
                        System.out.println("归还失败,该书已还未被借走。");
                        return;
                    }
                }
            }
            System.out.println("归还失败,未找到该书。");
        }}

    DisplayOperation(打印图书信息)

    package operation;import book.Book;import book.BookList;/**
     * User: gu'jiu
     * Date: 2022-05-18
     * Time: 15:06
     * Description:打印全部书籍信息
     */public class DisplayOperation implements IOperation{
        @Override
        public void work(BookList bookList) {
            System.out.println();
            System.out.println("显示全部图书");
            System.out.println("------------------------");
            int size = bookList.getUsedSize();
            for (int i = 0; i < size; i++) {
                Book book = bookList.getBooks(i);
                System.out.println(book);
            }
        }}

    ExitOperation(退出系统)

    import book.BookList;/**
     * User: gu'jiu
     * Date: 2022-05-18
     * Time: 15:08
     * Description:退出系统
     */public class ExitOperation implements IOperation{
        @Override
        public void work(BookList bookList) {
            System.out.println();
            System.out.println("退出系统。");
            System.out.println("------------------------");
            System.exit(0);
        }}

    user(使用者包)

    User(使用者抽象类)

    package user;import book.BookList;import operation.IOperation;/**
     * User: gu'jiu
     * Date: 2022-05-18
     * Time: 15:11
     * Description:使用者
     */abstract public class User {
        protected String userName;//使用者姓名
        protected IOperation[] iOperations;//功能数组
    
        public User(String userName) {
            this.userName = userName;
        }
    
        public abstract int menu();
        
        //输入选择,调用不同的功能
        public void doOperation(int choice, BookList bookList) {
            this.iOperations[choice].work(bookList);//动态绑定
        }}

    AdminUser(管理员)

    package user;import operation.*;import java.util.Scanner;/**
     * User: gu'jiu
     * Date: 2022-05-18
     * Time: 15:13
     * Description:管理员
     */public class AdminUser extends User{
        public AdminUser(String userName) {
            super(userName);
            //管理员功能
            this.iOperations = new IOperation[] {
                    new ExitOperation(),
                    new FindOperation(),
                    new AddOperation(),
                    new DelOperation(),
                    new DisplayOperation()
            };
        }
    
        @Override
        public int menu() {
            System.out.println();
            System.out.println("hello " + this.userName + " 欢迎来到图书馆");
            while(true) {
                System.out.println("------------------------");
                System.out.println("1.查找图书");
                System.out.println("2.新增图书");
                System.out.println("3.删除图书");
                System.out.println("4.显示全部图书");
                System.out.println("0.退出系统");
                System.out.println("------------------------");
                System.out.print("请输入你的操作:");
                Scanner scanner = new Scanner(System.in);
                int choice = scanner.nextInt();
                //保证输入数字有效
                if (choice > 4 || choice < 0) {
                    System.out.println("输入有误请重新输入。");
                } else {
                    return choice;
                }
            }
        }}

    NormalUser(普通用户)

    package user;import operation.*;import java.util.Scanner;/**
     * User: gu'jiu
     * Date: 2022-05-18
     * Time: 15:13
     * Description:学生
     */public class NormalUser extends User{
        public NormalUser (String userName) {
            super(userName);
            //用户功能
            this.iOperations = new IOperation[] {
                    new ExitOperation(),
                    new FindOperation(),
                    new BorrowOperation(),
                    new ReturnOperation(),
            };
        }
    
        @Override
        public int menu() {
            System.out.println();
            System.out.println("hello "+this.userName+" 欢迎来到图书馆");
            while(true) {
                System.out.println("------------------------");
                System.out.println("1.查找图书");
                System.out.println("2.借阅图书");
                System.out.println("3.归还图书");
                System.out.println("0.退出系统");
                System.out.println("------------------------");
                System.out.print("请输入你的操作:");
                Scanner scanner = new Scanner(System.in);
                int choice = scanner.nextInt();
                //保证输入数字有效
                if (choice > 3 || choice < 0) {
                    System.out.println("输入有误请重新输入。");
                } else {
                    return choice;
                }
            }
        }}

    Test类

    import book.BookList;import user.AdminUser;import user.NormalUser;import user.User;import java.util.Scanner;/**
     * User: gu'jiu
     * Date: 2022-05-18
     * Time: 15:20
     * Description:图书管理系统
     */public class Test {
        public static User login() {
            System.out.println("欢迎使用图书管理系统");
            Scanner scanner = new Scanner(System.in);
            System.out.print("请输入您的姓名:");
            String name = scanner.nextLine();
    
            while(true){
                System.out.println("-----------------------------");
                System.out.println("请选择您的身份:1>管理员 2>普通用户");
    
                System.out.print("请输入:");
                int choice = scanner.nextInt();
    
                //保证输入数字有效
                if (choice == 1) {
                    return new AdminUser(name);
                } else if (choice == 2) {
                    return new NormalUser(name);
                } else {
                    System.out.println("输入有误,请重新输入。");
                }
            }
        }
        public static void main(String[] args) {
            BookList bookList = new BookList();
            User user = login();//向上转型
    
            while(true){
                int choice = user.menu();
                user.doOperation(choice, bookList);
            }
        }}

    四、部分代码(doOperation)解释

    主函数中的user.doOperation(choice, bookList);中的doOperation方法比较难理解,我们来解释一下

    1.user.引用的可能是两个对象

    2.在实例化这对象的时候,在构造方法中,我们已经将iOperations[]准备好了。

    3.根据输入下标(例如:2)访问相应对象,再调用work方法。

    推荐学习:《java视频教程

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